ALBUM (Association of Local Bus Company Managers)

ALBUM was formed in 1984 to provide a forum to exchange best practice among its members and for the promotion of high-quality services that encourage more people to travel by bus. There are around 150 members representing bus operators in the UK and ALBUM provides a networking opportunity for bus managers, to share best practice and to respond to government consultations affecting the industry.

First & Last Mile, First mile/last mile, FMLM

First & Last Mile describes passenger travel in the context of getting to a transit provider stop, and then from a stop to a final location. In the 2014 Active Travel Survey, walking was recorded as a ‘stage’ (where there is a change in the mode of transport) in around 1/3 of bus trips. Micromobility options can be utilised to address First & Last Mile gaps.


Micromobility refers to a range of small, lightweight vehicles operating at speeds typically below 25 km/h (15 mph) and driven by users personally (unlike rickshaws). Micromobility devices include bicycles, e-bikes, electric scooters, electric skateboards, shared bicycles, and electric pedal-assisted (pedelec) bicycles.


In bus operations, livery is the uniform or branding worn by a person, object or vehicle that shows a relationship between the wearer and bus operator. Bus livery can include seat coverings, bus signs, wraps, uniforms and more! A comprehensive livery brings consistency to a fleet, while clear route branding ensures quick identification for passengers.

SCA (Strong Customer Authentication)

SCA is a requirement that electronic payments are performed with multi-factor authentication, to increase the security of electronic payments.

NFC (Near Field Communication)

Often used for payments, NFC transmits data to enable two devices to communicate with each other. To work, both devices must contain NFC chips and be placed very close together.

SEO (Search Engine Optimisation)

The process of optimising your website to get more organic or un-paid traffic from the search engine results page.

As a term, SEO is almost now a generic way to talk about ‘making it appear in searches at the top’.  The challenge with this is that it’s a constant cat and mouse game as Google, Bing, Jeeves, etc don’t publish how they rank sites explicitly, so there is an entire industry trying to reverse engineer it and sell the techniques. 

There are things website teams should always do, and keep doing, but SEO needs to be thought about constantly rather than ‘set and forget’ – though it’s also correct that too many changes, or the wrong ones, could have a detrimental effect on a website’s position in search engine results.

DDOS (Distributed denial-of-service)

An attempt to disrupt normal traffic of a targeted server, service or network by overwhelming the target or its surrounding infrastructure with a flood of Internet traffic.


A human-readable data-serialization language. It is commonly used for configuration files and in applications where data is being stored or transmitted. YAML is a recursive acronym for “YAML Ain’t Markup Language”.


A tickets ‘entitlement’ defines when and how it can be used. Fixed date tickets can be used many times during a valid date range i.e a school term pass. Fixed date ticket entitlement will be a date range. Flexible tickets are valid for use over a set time period e.g a day ticket which can be used for 24 hours from it’s activation time. Flexible ticket entitlement will be a short period of time and how many times it can be used.