ETM (Electronic Ticketing Machine)

ETMs are machines with computer processors and memory which issue tickets for travel. ETMs are either designed for in-vehicle use, as fixed or handheld units, or for use at stations and other off-bus locations in the form of electronic kiosks.  In-vehicle fixed electronic ticket machines (ETM) are most commonly used on bus services, although they can also be used on other transport services.

DNS (Domain Name System)

The Domain Name System is the phonebook of the internet. Each device connected to the internet has a unique IP address which other machines use to find the device. DNS servers eliminate the need for us to memorise IP addresses such as

CMS (Content Management System)

Software that facilitates creating, editing, organising and publishing content. Drupal and WordPress are examples of Content Management Systems that allow you to create and publish content on the Internet.


A software cache stores data so that future requests for that data can be served faster; the data stored in a cache is the result of an earlier request for the same data which is then stored locally or somewhere along the network, such as a router or switch network device. The more requests that can be served from the cache, the faster the system performs.

L10n (Localisation)

Localization refers to the adaptation of a product, application or system to meet the language, cultural and other requirements of a specific target market (a locale). Localisation is sometimes written as l10n (where 10 is the number of letters in the English word between l and n). L10n covers translating and things like changing date formats, e.g. translating Cardiff Bus information into Welsh.

i18n (Internationalisation)

Internationalisation (sometimes shortened to “I18N, meaning “I – eighteen letters -N”) is the process of planning and implementing products and services so that they can easily be adapted to specific local languages and cultures, a process called localization. The numbers refer to the number of letters in the words (because it’s easier to type). In the context of websites/apps, I18n covers translating and things like changing date formats, e.g. translating Cardiff Bus information into Welsh.

API (Application Programming Interface)

A software intermediary that allows two applications to talk to each other. An API is a set of commands, functions, protocols, and objects that programmers can use to create software or interact with an external system. It provides developers with standard commands for performing common operations so they do not have to write the code from scratch.

A11y (Accessibility)

Accessibility is one of the most important considerations in transport apps and websites. It means making an app or website accessible to users in more challenging situations and for those with disabilities. Accessibility is often referred to as A11y for short. A11Y is a numeronym (similar to an acronym) with the first and last letters of “accessibility” preserved and the remaining letters between replaced with their sum total of 11.